Forms of magnetic resonance and bioactive frequencies

An introduction to bioactive frequencies

How should we think when we wish to understand which frequencies are bioactive? We must think which frequencies can resonate with: 

1. the body (including the head etc.), 

2. the molecules or atoms, including their ions,

3. the particles (electrons and protons).

In the case of ions and particles we have magnetic resonance including nuclear and cyclotron magnetic resonance. Concerning body resonance, the following excerpt from this reference in informative: "In the upright position, the grounded body has a longitudinal resonance around 35 MHz (Gandhi, 1975). Ungrounded, this resonance is around 70 MHz. In the transverse and anteroposterior axes, maximum absorption occurs at frequencies from 135 to 163 MHz."

Biochemical entities responsive to electromagnetic fields

In order to analyze the interaction of biological systems with electromagnetic fields (EMF), we must understand which biochemical entities are responsive to EMF, starting from molecules or atoms, including their ions, and proceeding to subatomic particles. These entities may be responsive among other by means of “resonance”, meaning by "resounding" or echoing a specific electromagnetic frequency. The different types of magnetic resonance are to be examined. The hydrogen nucleus or proton is used routinely for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowing detection of biological structures. The electron is also used in related applications. It would also be suggested to consider the ions of cellular signalling and in particular the most important neural signalling ions, such as calcium, potassium, sodium and chlorine. The frequencies at which the mentioned biochemical entities are responsive to electromagnetic fields constitute bioactive frequencies, given that they have an action on the biological system.

Types of magnetic resonance

There exist the following types of magnetic resonance:

1. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with MRI being a most common application.

2. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR).

3. Cyclotron resonance.

Nuclear magnetic resonance

By the term nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we refer to the property of a nucleus to be responsive by energy absorption to a specific frequency: the frequency by which its spin precesses in the magnetic field where it resides. Precessing is similar to revolving, considering that the spin axis revolves by writing a cone around the magnetic field lines, similarly to a spinning top toy as shown in Figure 1 on the left. The precessional frequency ω, also called Larmor frequency, is proportional to the magnetic field strength. It can be calculated by multiplying the latter with a constant called magnetogyric ratio γ , which in the case of the hydrogen nucleus is 43 MHz/T. As we are found in the magnetic field of the Earth, which has an average strength of 50 microtesla (0.5 Gauss), our hydrogen nuclei precess with a frequency of 2150 Hz (cycles per second) as calculated below.

ω = γ * Β ⇒ ω = 43 MHz/T * 0.000005 T ⇒ ω = 2150 Hz

This is the magnetic resonance frequency of the nucleus. Electromagnetic waves of this frequency will resonate magnetically with the nuclei. As a result, the energy of the wave will be absorbed by the nucleus, which will be energized and excited to a higher energetic level. Simultaneously, the magnetic component of the wave will tip the spins towards alignment with the wave and most importantly it will tend to synchronize them. When the electromagnetic wave is stopped, the spins will relax by emitting the energy they absorbed.  

Figure 1: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cyclotron Magnetic Resonance

When we conduct an MRI, we use the hydrogen nuclei or protons which are found in abundance in water in the human body. We routinely use a strong magnetic field of approximately 1 T. In this case, the precessional frequency is approximately 43 MHz and therefore, we provide energy at this frequency in order to obtain an image of biological structures. Parellely, low field MRI has become popular lately while Earth-field applications also exist.

Cyclotron resonance

By the term cyclotron resonance (CR), we refer to the property of a particle to be responsive to a different characteristic frequency: the frequency by which the particle revolves around the magnetic field lines. When a particle moves in a magnetic field, and specifically perpendicularly to its field lines, a magnetic force (termed the Lorenz force) is exerted, obliging it to move in circles around the field lines (by acting as a centripetal force, Fc) as shown in Figure 1. The frequency of this circular motion, called gyrofrequency or cyclotronic frequency is the cyclotron resonance frequency of the particle. A calcium ion (Ca2+) which is found in the Earth’s magnetic field of 50 μΤ has a cyclotron resonance frequency of 38 Hz. When external energy is provided at this frequency, the particle will absorb the provided energy and will be excited. Shortly after, energy emission will follow.

Electron spin resonance

The electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency or electron paramagnetic resonance frequency (EPR) is identical to the electron cyclotron resonance frequency and equal to approximately 1.4 MHz in an indicative magnetic field of 50 μΤ. 

Frequencies of NMR, ESR/EPR and CR

The nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies and cyclotron resonance frequencies for the most important biological ions, corresponding respectively to their precessional frequencies and gyrofrequencies are provided in Table 1, for an indicative magnetic field of 50 μΤ. Table 1 is also available as a Google sheet. The ESR/EPR frequency is provided in Table 2. 


Nuclear MR: 2 kHz

Cyclotron MR: 760 Hz   


Electron spin/cyc. MR: 1.4 MHz


Nuclear MR: 100-565 Hz

Cyclotron MR: 20-65 Hz

Table 1: The nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies and cyclotron resonance frequencies for the most important biological ions, corresponding respectively to their precessional frequencies and gyrofrequencies at 50 μΤ.

Table 2: The spin magnetic resonance frequency and cyclotron resonance frequency for the electron at 50 μΤ.